Scientific Papers


© CSR, 2008-2019
ISSN: 2306-3483 (Online), 2071-8330 (Print)

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Africa-China-Europe relations: Conditions and conditionalities

Vol. 12, No 4, 2019


Adams Bodomo


Department of African Studies, University of Vienna


Africa-China-Europe relations: Conditions and conditionalities



Abstract. This paper uses two concepts, conditions and conditionalities, to explain the differing approaches between China and the European Union (EU) in regards to how these two entities engaged African countries socio-politically, socio-economically, and socio-culturally between 2000 and 2018. Using mixed methods (both qualitative and quantitative) to obtain data we argue that the EU tends to impose more conditionalities on African countries than China does, and in so doing China is making more investment progress in Africa than Europe does. As part of the practical results of this research the paper outlines a number of ways the EU can re-engage Africa to match up or even surpass Chinese engagement on the continent of Africa, including less political conditionalities, more trade than development aid, and also inclusion of African diaspora more in Europe’s dealings with African countries.


Received: March, 2019

1st Revision: May, 2019

Accepted: November, 2019


DOI: 10.14254/2071-8330.2019/12-4/8


JEL ClassificationP45, P51, O55

KeywordsChinese investment, trade, European development aid, infrastructure, Africa