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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES


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ISSN: 2306-3483 (Online), 2071-8330 (Print)



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Traditional protectionism versus behind-the-border barriers in the post-crisis era: experience of three groups of countries: the EU, NAFTA and BRICS

Vol. 7, No 2, 2014

 

Marta Wajda-Lichy

Cracow University of Economics

Poland

wajdam@uek.krakow.pl

Traditional protectionism versus behind-the-border barriers in the post-crisis era: experience of three groups of countries: the EU, NAFTA and BRICS


Received: June, 2014

1st Revision: September, 2014

Accepted: October, 2014

 

ABSTRACT. This paper provides quantitative evidence of the protectionist measures imple- mented by three groups of countries: the European Union, NAFTA and BRICS in the aftermath of the last financial crisis. This article reveals that both emerging economies and highly-industrialized countries were very active in introducing discrimination measures against foreign commercial interests; however the dominated forms of pro- tectionist actions were not traditional ones (border measures), but behind-the-border barriers. Furthermore, in the post-crisis era, the majority of protectionist actions took illegible form and were implemented not only towards the third countries but also among the members of free trade-based organization like the EU or NAFTA.

DOI: 10.14254/2071-8330.2014/7-2/12

JEL Classification:  F13, F15, F53

Keywordsprotectionism, trade policy, behind-the-border measures, global economic crisis, European Union, BRICS, NAFTA